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Art of Conceiving SLD with preliminary data considering technical and commercial aspects

  • Identifying the voltage levels for the plant
  • Identifying the substation /switchgear and locations
  • Identifying transformer MVA, voltage ratio, %Z ratings
  • Detecting Earth fault in LV System
  • The basic calculation for short circuit powers
  • Voltage dip calculation on starting of large motors
  • Type of system grounding

1. Selection of Switchgears

Identifying the Type of Switchgear requirement

  • Motors
  • Transformers
  • Capacitors
  • Generator
  • Cables

2. Classification of Switchgear (As per IEC 62271-200)

  • Accessibility
  • Loss of Service Continuity
  • Type of Barriers
  • Internal Arc Classification

3. Operating Parameters of MV Switchgear

  • Rated Voltage
  • Impulse Voltage
  • Power Frequency Voltage
  • Short Time Withstand Current
  • Peak Withstand Current
  • Minimum Short Circuit Current

4. Selection of Switchgear Components and its functions

  • Disconnector
  • Earthing Disconnector
  • Switch
  • Disconnector Switch
  • Circuit Breakers
  • Contactors
  • Fuse

5. Selection of Instrument Transformers for Protection and Metering

  • Current Transformers
  • Voltage Transformers
  • Low Power Current Transformers

6. Accessibility and Service Continuity of switchgear

7. Identifying Dielectric Withstand and Protection

8. Graphical Symbols of Switchgear Components

Substation Design

1. Basics of Substation Design

  • Substation Arrangement
  • Substation Type
  • Substation Equipment
  • Substation Layouts

2. Selection of Protection Philosophy

  • LV Motor Feeders
  • LV Outgoing Feeders
  • LV Transformer Feeder
  • LV Incomer Feeder
  • LV Bus Coupler Feeder
  • MV Motor Feeders
  • MV Tie Feeders
  • MV Transformer Feeder
  • MV Incomer Feeder
  • MV Bus Coupler Feeder
  • Auto Changeover Philosophy

3. Substation Communication Protocol

4. Identifying the needs of Intelligent Relays

5. ANSI Codes for Protection.

6. Sizing and selection of HV Power Capacitors.

7. Substation AC UPS and DC UPS sizing and selection.

SLD Review and Interlocks for Switchgear

  • Review of Single Line Diagram and Protection Metering Diagrams
  • Safety Interlocks Between Switchgear
  • Safety and Operation Consideration for Control Voltage Distribution
  • Safety and Operation Consideration in UPS and Battery/Battery Charger System


Working with high voltage needs special qualifications because of the high risks involved. You should have a solid educational background, licensing, certification, experience, and safety training.

Classes in high voltage include Electrical Fundamentals, Power Systems Analysis, High Voltage Engineering, Electrical Safety, Power Electronics, High Voltage Systems, High Voltage Equipment, etc.

You should make sure that the power source is switched off and the cables are de-energized. You should wear the right protective gear such as gloves and boots and use insulated tools.

The safety standards depend on the specific industry or application and the jurisdiction. Any current above 10 A, regardless of voltage, is hazardous. Stored energy above 10 joules is also hazardous.

Course Rating

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